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Poultry Feed

2018-06-30

Poultry feed refers to the food, concentrates, premixes, additives and chemicals used in the commercial farming of chickens, ducks, geese, turkey, quails and other birds. Generally a feed is prepared by mixing nutritional supplements in the grains to maintain the health of poultry and quality of their meat and eggs. It comes in several forms such as Mash, Pellets, Crumbles and Scratch grain to provide best food to broilers, layers, baby chicks and hatchlings.

Maxwell Lifesciences is one of the largest manufacturers of premium quality Poultry feed in India. We are a trusted provider of all kind of poultry feeds developed by our agricultural scientists after a lot of research and experimentation done on animal diets. Our manufacturing units are well equipped with latest feed milling technology and world’s finest equipment. Rigorous quality checks are performed during the procurement process of raw materials that are used in the manufacturing of broiler feed. We take extreme care of hygiene, cleanliness and dryness of raw material and finished products to prevent contamination and to save your birds from infections. To maintain quality of our poultry products, we have a lab in every plant with state of the art testing facilities, every packet go through several tests to ensure the nutritional value we promise.

We have been awarded ISO 9001:2015 certificate by International Organization for Standardization for following strict food quality control measures at all the stages of production. We suggest you to never choose a cheap poultry feed supplier as the food may have contamination in the form of bacteria, fungus, toxins and other viruses.

Feed mills and premix plants of Maxwell are located in lucknow Uttar Pradesh India.

Feed Nutrition

A healthy broiler chicken or any other bird requires a certain amount of protein, vitamin, carbohydrate and minerals (calcium, phosphorus etc.) in their daily diet. Feed quantity and nutrition value depends on many factors such as weather, age, weight, body growth rate and egg production rate. Therefore we have created different feed formulations for better health and proper poultry nutrition.

Feed and Concentrates We Offer

Broiler Prestarter, Starter and Finisher Feed
Broiler Concentrate 5%. 7.5%, 10%, 35%
Breeder Broiler Mash
Layer Feed for Egg Laying Birds
Layer Concentrate
Breeder Layer Mash
Chick Crumble
Grower Concentrate

Feed materials for birds

Different feeds are important for the nutrients which they contain.

Carbohydrates are found in grains which can be fed whole or ground as meal. Birds can be given corn, rice, maize, barley, oats, sorghum, finger and bulrush millet, or bran from rice or other grains.

Cake from the processing of groundnuts, cottonseed or dates can also provide carbohydrate and protein. Soya bean meal also contains proteins. These types of protein-rich feeds are from plants while animal products such as fish meal, milk powder and dried blood also contain proteins and can be fed to birds.

Birds must not be given too much animal protein. Not only is it expensive but too much of it may cause some diseases to occur in the animals. Too much fish meal can make eggs taste fishy.

Fats are found in cottonseed, groundnuts and sunflowers.

Minerals are in bone meal (ground bone) egg shells and old seashells which can be ground and added to the feed. If cuttlefish bone is available locally it is an excellent source of minerals.

Vitamins may be supplied by adding green plants to the feed or by adding commercially produced vitamins.

Rations

The ration will change with the requirements of the bird. Young birds need a ration which is rich in protein while laying birds need plenty of minerals. Some examples of rations are given.

 

 

Age of Bird

Whole & ground grain

Cake plant/animal

Protein

Minerals

up to 8 weeks

7 parts

2 parts

1 part

0.25 part

8 – 12 weeks

8 parts

1.5 parts

1 part

0.25 part

Laying

8 parts

1.5 parts

0.25 part

0.50 part

For chickens whole grain can be scattered over the run encouraging birds to scratch as they feed and so take in minerals from the soil.

Water

Birds need clean fresh water at all times. Every 4 chickens will need 1 litre of water every day and this will double as the weather becomes hotter.

Protein Deficiency

If the feed contains too little protein (animal or plant) the birds will become weak and may develop infections. They do not grow well and meat production is badly affected. Egg laying decreases or stops.

Mineral Deficiencies

Lack of calcium in the feed can cause:

The bones of the leg to curve making the bird unable to walk properly

Soft shelled eggs or eggs without shells are laid

If birds lay eggs that have either no shell or a soft shell these eggs will be broken and can be eaten by other birds. If this happens the chicken can develop a habit of eating eggs which then becomes a problem.

To prevent these problems birds must be given plenty of minerals as powdered shell or bone. If birds are allowed to scratch for grain they will take in minerals they need from the soil in the run. A good source of minerals is to feed crushed egg shells to the birds.

Problems caused by a lack of Vitamins

If vitamins are not present in the feed then:

Birds do not grow well, are weak, cannot move properly and the feathers are ruffled.

Chest problems can occur and birds have nose and eye discharges.

The toes curl inwards and birds have difficulty in moving.

These problems can be prevented by adding commercially bought vitamins to the feed or providing the birds with green vegetables in addition to the feed. Vitamin deficiencies can cause birds to start feather picking which becomes a problem.

 Feed  intake

While there is a wide variation between the eating habits of different birds in the flock, fowls do tend to eat meals on about 15-minute intervals through the daylight hours and, to some extent, during darkness. They tend to eat larger portions at first light and in the late evening.

Factors that affect food intake include:

  1. Age and live weight

  2. Environmental temperature

  3. Energy content of the food

  4. Level of other key nutrients

  5. Egg production

  6. Water quality and temperature

  7. The health status of the flock

Similar factors affect the rate of movement of the food through the digestive system with a meal of normal food taking approximately 4 hours to pass through in the case of young stock, 8 hours in the case of laying hens and 12 hours for broody hens. Intact, hard grains take longer to digest than the cracked grain and, quite often some whole grain will pass through unchanged.

Enzyme action

After ingestion, the food is mixed with saliva and mucous from the mouth and oesophagus and these secretions thoroughly moisten the food. The enzyme amylase, which is produced by the salivary and oesophageal glands and found in the saliva and mucous, can now commence to breakdown the complex carbohydrates. However, the amount of enzyme action at this stage is minimal and the first major enzyme activity takes place in the proventriculus and in the gizzard.

Hydrochloric acid, pepsin and gastrin

The secretions of the proventriculus or glandular stomach as it is often called, include hydrochloric acid to lower the pH of the system and the food mixture, the enzyme pepsin that acts on protein, and the hormone gastrin that stimulates the production and release of gastric juice in the proventriculus and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.

Breaking the food particles

The gizzard is a very powerful organ with the function of physically breaking the food particles into smaller sizes to make the work of the enzymes easier. At the same time the enzymes previously released into the food with the saliva and by the proventriculus are thoroughly mixed into the food thus improving their opportunity to carry out their work. This breaking and mixing function of the gizzard is enhanced by the presence of insoluble grit such as stones.

The food material enters the duodenum from the gizzard. Enzyme activity in this region is, in the main, a continuation of the breakdown of proteins started in the gizzard. Pancreatic juice and bile from the liver enters via ducts located at the distal end of the duodenum at about the junction of the duodenum and the jejunum if it were differentiated. However, because of back flow of pancreatic juice and bile towards the gizzard, the actions of these secretions start earlier in the digestive process than would be expected by their entry point to the small intestine. One effect is an increase in the pH of the intestinal contents of the latter half of the duodenum from strongly to weakly acid.

  • In addition to enzymes, the pancreas produces insulin and sodium bicarbonate. The insulin is involved in the maintenance of blood sugar levels while the sodium bicarbonate, being strongly alkaline, will increase the pH of the intestinal contents.

Reducing complex food compounds

The small intestine also produces enzymes that play their part in the digestive process of reducing the complex food compounds eaten to the simple compounds or building blocks that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall for transport to the organ or location where either they will be further processed, stored or used. Food materials that escape enzyme action along this tract are subjected to bacterial breakdown in the caeca thus providing a system of at least partial recovery of some nutrients.

Waste (faeces)

The remainder of the material consisting of waste and undigested food are mixed with the urine in the cloaca and eliminated from the body as faeces. The appearance of the faeces varies considerably, but typically is a rounded, brown to grey mass topped with a cap of white uric acid from the kidneys. The contents of the caeca are also discharged periodically as discrete masses of brown, glutinous material.

  • The average daily production of faeces from laying hens is between 100 and 150 grams. These fresh droppings are approximately 75% water and will air dry under favourable conditions to approximately 30% water.

Feed consumption of Brown Egg Laying Hens in relation to Body Weight

Age
(wk)

Body weight
(g)

Feed consumption
(kg/100 birds/d)

Age
(wk)

Body weight
(g)

Feed consumption
(kg/100 birds/d)

1

70

0.07

40

2020

23.97

4

310

0.61

44

2040

27.25

8

670

1.81

48

2050

30.50

12

990

3.31

52

2060

33.72

16

1330

5.09

56

2070

36.92

20

1720

7.50

60

2080

40.11

24

1910

11.44

64

2090

43.31

28

1950

13.95

68

2100

46.50

32

1980

17.31

72

2100

49.69

36

2000

20.67

76

2100

52.88

Cumulative Feed consumption for Male and Female Broilers (g)

Age
(weeks)

Male

Female

0

0

0

1

135

131

2

425

404

3

912

848

4

1616

1490

5

2576

2228

6

3717

3229

7

4998

4310

8

6430

5475

9

8007

6721

Water consumption rates for chickens

Water is an essential nutrient for life. Water consumption can be limited if the water is too hot or is contaminated with excess minerals. Water and food consumption rates are interdependent and so reduced water intake can also lead to reduced food intake. Tables 7 and 8 provide data on typical water consumption levels for layers and broiler, respectively.
Typical Daily Water consumption for Layer (litres per 1000 birds) Birds

 

 

20oC

32oC

Layer pullet

4 weeks

50

75

12 weeks

115

180

18 weeks

140

200

 

Age

20oC

32oC

1 weeks

24

40

3 weeks

100

190

6 weeks

240

500

9 weeks

300

600

Laying hens

50% production

150

250

90% production

180

300

Typical Daily Water consumption for Broiler (litres per 1000 birds) Birds

 


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